Friday, August 10, 2007

Scotland Population and Migration

Scotland is one of the most special countries in Europe. Even though Scotland is a part of the UK, people who are from this country never say that they are English. They have their own name, Scottish. From William Wallace we have learned the Scottish men are brave but wear short skirts normally. They have been performing bagpipes and fighting with England for their independence. However, the descendants of William Wallace and his warriors are facing a huge problem; Scotland’s population is decreasing gradually. The Scottish government has made several solutions to solve population’s problem, but all of them are not efficacious. In my opinion, the reason is only one, economy. The Scottish government should improve their own economy to keep population and attract immigration. There are four solutions; I think which will solve Scotland’s population problem. First, Scotland’s government should know that economy is the key of population. Second, Scotland should know the immigration is not a solution for Scotland’s population negative growth. Third, Scotland should make markets actively and increase domestic demand. Finally, Scotland should imitate other countries to take family-friendly actions to raise the birth rate.

According to a research report, “Migration into Scotland” (MigrationWatch UK, 15 January 2004), the population of Scotland has been about 5 million for 50 years. That is an interesting fact, because zero population growth is good news for a country usually. However, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is just 1.48 children per woman in Scotland (Migration into Scotland, para.4). Furthermore, the birth rate is 10.4 per 1,000 people (Migration into Scotland, para.8). Also, emigration is the other reason that causes population declines. According to BBC News, the Scottish government wants to make an immigration policy to prevent population decrease and stimulate economy. But it was criticized as a passive way by some opposes. The Scottish economy is not actively. And in the research report (Migration into Scotland, para.10), Scotland has a high unemployed rate, 6.8% in 2002. It is the main cause that emigration happens in Scotland. Therefore, it is expectable the young people, who are in reproductive age, are more likely to move to England or other countries for better jobs and life. They are more able to produce babies in foreign countries. So as to the TFR and the birth rate both are very low and finally induce the negative population growth.

First, the economy absolutely is the key of population. The Scottish economy has risen since the Industry Evolution in the UK, then became one of the most developed countries in the world. But recent decades, the economy of Scotland has become more and more inactive. Comparing with England or other the rest of the UK, the Scottish economy is the lowest. However, Scotland and the UK are together anyway. People who have Scottish visa can live and work in England or the other rests of the UK legally. So if the Scotland makes their own immigration policy, the visa is easies to get than England, who will want to stay in there and won’t move to other places that have more and better jobs? They will go to England or elsewhere for better lives as soon as they arrived in Scotland. Also, Scottish people bear a lot of economic pressure. And they consider if they feed more children, they will have bigger financial problems. They consider about their pensions when they retired. The best way for Scottish people escaping the abyss may be moving to other countries to find better lives. Consequently, the problem that Scotland faces is not there are not enough workers, but are not enough jobs.

Second, according to the research report (Migration into Scotland, 2004), international migrants did not help Scotland’s population, because the main destination for immigrants is more likely to be London or the South West. It means Scotland sometimes is a so-called “back-door” for those immigrants. Also, migration is a not active solution, as an article “The Outlook for Scotland’s population: Does Scotland need its own immigration policy?” said, “that [immigration] does not help as much as one might expect, partly because of skills gaps partly because the scale immigration needed would create social problems”. Many immigrants are less able to enter local main society because of their different cultures, especially different religions. The conflict and mistake are ineluctable. We usually hear some unhappy events happening between immigrants’ community and local people from news. And following the immigration, the criminal rate may increase, the racialism may appear. Some people would argue the immigration will bring the new economic elements and create more chances for working. It is true as the government thought. The immigration also brings more people and more competition, even though the jobs become more and more. As we know, the immigrants usually come to one country for better jobs and lives, too. So they have to work harder and hander. They can obtain some dirty work that local men won’t do. Gradually, the local men will be behind immigrants in working competition. When immigrants occupy the jobs, Scottish people may choose emigration again.

Third, Scotland should make markets actively and increase domestic demand. This is the hardest work. The traditional manufacturing in Scotland and the UK is declining because of the big pressure of labor costs, taxation and processed materials. The factories are more likely to move to Eastern Europe and Asia where the most immigrants come from. However, the government should be responsible for economic resuscitation. First, Scotland should attract new economies into country. Tourism is a rising industry, less investment and very efficient. Scotland is the best place to develop tourism. Scotland has so many tourist resources, such as cragged mountains, steeper canyons and old-line castles. I think the charm of Scottish nation will attract thousand and hundred people to visit Scotland. At that time, Scotland must be a good resort in Europe. Also, Scotland should attract high-qualities people who have immigrated out to other countries to come back and help homeland grow the economy. It is better than attracting foreigner to come into Scotland. People who have immigrated out to other countries won’t have any obstruction in communication and social life when they come back to Scotland. And they are still responsible for their mother country. The high-qualities emigrants may be a exhilarant for Scottish sleeping economy. On the other hand, the UK is also responsible for Scottish economy. The government of the UK should make a series of solutions to stimulate the economy in Scotland. Even though many Scottish do not like the UK government, they do need the help from the UK.

Finally, the family-friendly actions probably are the most direct and efficient way to improve population. The family-friendly actions are a project that is making a good and harmonious environment for family life (Wikipedia, 7 March 2007). For example, if the entertainment or information is called "family-friendly", it will be considered suitable for the whole family. It is normally that if a family lives very happily, they will be more able to produce more babies, because it may mean more happiness. According to research paper “Migration into Scotland”, the family-friendly actions have been successful in Scandinavia, which has had the most negative population growth of the world, but now the birth rate of which is at or near natural replacement levels. Therefore, Scotland should imitate other countries to take family-friendly actions to raise the birth rate.

In conclusion, Scotland’s economy is the key of population. A poor country neither attracts the immigration nor prevents the emigration. Also, Scotland should know the immigration is not a solution for Scotland’s population negative growth. Only if the economy has increase, the people will stay and work in Scotland. Then, Scotland should make markets actively and increase domestic demand. The new economies will bring surprises and chances. Finally, Scotland should imitate other countries to take family-friendly actions to raise the birth rate. However, the controlling population is a long-term project for every country. It is impossible to see the efficiency in five years or ten years. The solution is only one, the Scottish government should improve their own economy to keep population and attract immigration.


Population pyramids, Gov of the UK, 2002

Population of Scotland Facts, Gov of the UK, 2002

The outlook for Scotland's population: Does Scotland need its own immigration policy? MigrationWatch UK, 21 June 2005

Migration into Scotland, MigrationWatch UK, 15 January 2004

Visa move to beat population drop, BBC News, 25 February, 2004

Family-friendliness, Wikipedia, 7 March 2007

Thursday, July 26, 2007

Pu Qin, Bright

Immigration in Scotland

I went to and a story interested me, “Visa move to beat population drop”. In the story, the author said the first minister has agreed to make a loose immigration system to deal with population decline. First, the author mentioned that 8,000 new people including work permitted and international students moved to Scotland each year. However, the greatest threat of Scotland was the country’s population, which would be expected to drop below five million by 2009 (about 5,170,000 in 2003 from Second, the author said the government wanted to encourage foreign student to stay in Scotland after they graduated then helped Scotland grow the local economy. The current policy was that students could only stay until October of the year they graduate, but Scotland would change it to give them 2 more years’ visas to stay and work in there. Third, the author said that some people considered the current policies such as locking up the children of asylum seekers at the detention center would make a wrong first impression to people from abroad who might want to live in Scotland. And also some people deemed the immigration policy was a passive way to stimulate economic growth. They said the policy was cooked on purpose by some politicians for their own office careers.

First of all, Scotland is reallly facing a big threat from the population problem. According to UK government, Scotland does have a very low Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 1.48 in contrast with the UK as a whole of 1.65. Also the Scotland’s birth rate is lower than the UK’s ( Migration Into Scotland, 15 January 2004). This is naturally giving cause for some longer term concern. Its lower rates will lead to slightly faster population ageing than the UK. The reason for the low birth rate is the emigration of young people, who are early in their reproductive life, who move to England or elsewhere to obtain better jobs than Scotland’s.

Second, in the past, immigration did not make Scotland's population go up. The United Kingdom has had very high levels of net migration (about 875,000) in the last 10 years. But in the same period Scotland has had a loss of 41,000 by emigration. This shows that heavy immigration into the UK does not help Scotland to prevent a loss of population. Basically, international migrants are more likely to select London or the South East as their destination. On the other hand, Just a few people decide to move into Scotland because of there inactive economy.

Finally, the economy is the key of Scotland’s future. Based on the large emigration, it should be concluded that Scotland needs more jobs, not more workers actually. Scotland has a high rate of unemployment (6.8% in 2002). But in 2001 its claims for unemployment benefit were 4.2% of its workforce. This is why migrants will choose England, which has a better economy to stay and work in. Even the Scottish cannot get suitable jobs; can migrants? If Scotland liberalizes the immigration policy, how Scotland prevents from becoming the back door of England for new immigrants will be the hardest problem for policy makers.

In conclusion, Scotland should solve its own economic problem, make markets actively and increase domestic demand. It is should be a vibrant economy, which attracts migrants and reduces emigrants, rather than the other way. Also, Scotland should imitate other countries by taking family-friendly actions to raise the birth rate. Such actions have been successful in Scandinavia, still enjoys birth rates which are at or near natural replacement levels.

Monday, July 16, 2007

Pu Qin, Bright

The Outlook for Scotland’s Population

In the article “The outlook for Scotland’s population”, by the UK government, in, the author says the population of Scotland decreases gradually, but the immigration increases. There are two causes. First, the author mentions the immigration is the main problem. Before 2000 there was generally a net movement of people each year from Scotland to the rest of the UK and international destinations. Second was because the low birth rate led to concerns about the decline and ageing of the Scottish population. Therefore, The Scottish Executive recommended an immigration policy as a solution to this problem.

First, I think Scotland does need immigration to keep their population so it does not decrease any more. It is necessary because of some population facts. Let’s look at some information which is given by an official website. Until Sptember of 2002, Scotland’s population was 5,062,011, and the females were more than males by about 200,000; more than one fifth of the people lived in Glasgow, the capital of Scotland; the birth rate was 10.7/1,000, and the death rate was 11.0/1,000. This means the dead people are more than newborn babies every year. The population was going down! However, there are 4.1 migrants per 1,000 people. So thank goodness, population still had a 0.4% growth.

Second, does Scotland need its own immigration policy? I don’t think so; it will cause a lot of problems in the future. They surely need immigration, but the policy needs to be directed by the government, by the UK as a whole. Scotland should not have its own work permit rule, unless within the context of a generally limit to the levels immigration allowed into the UK, because the migration to Scotland may become a back door route to England.

Third, the economy is the key which attracts migrants rather than other ways. A lot of immigrants, in fact, do not stay in Scotland but move to England. After Holland, England is already the second most tightly populated country in Europe. Its population is projected to rise from 49.856 million in 2003 to 55.881 million in 2031( Much of this increase is due to the results of immigration. But the whole reason is that England’s economy is better than Scotland's. It would be possible to give special consideration to Scotland’s labor market needs, if there was a general limit immigration to the UK which gave preference to those planning to work in Scotland.

In conclusion, Scotland is unlikely to have a very hopeless in population problem. the Scottish should consider how to increase their own economy at first. They cannot always live in England’s shadow. Scotland needs migrants to keep population development, but it has to be under control.

Census 2001 - Population Pyramids – SCOTLAND, , 7 July 2007
Population of Scotland, Statistics of Scottish City Population, , 7 July 2007

Thursday, July 12, 2007

Pu Qin, Bright

Baby Boom in China

As you know, China has the largest number of population in the world. In 1950’s, The Chinese government encouraged married couples to have lots of children to help develop the country. They trusted that if population increased, the nation would be forever. The policy was changed to family planning in the early 1970’s because of overpopulation. However, when the baby-boomers from the mid-50’s became marrying age, another baby boom happened in the city. The “one child” policy still made low birth rates, and China became old too early and too fast. According to government, around 2035, China will have 20 percent of the population who are aged 65 and over. Therefore, currently, a married couple who both comes from a one-child family is allowed to have their second child. So, the next baby boom is expected between 2010 and 2015.
Pu Qin, Bright

Are You Ready to Wed?

Marriage is a wonderful and holy thing. Since God created men and women, the love was born on the earth. How many romantic things they made! From songs to theaters, from paintings to movies, people always praise love and marriage to the skies. But people probably forget something real. The love is not the whole elements of the marriage.

Responsibility is the most important element that people should perform in the marriage. Men are likely able to be interested in women while they meet each other at the first time. Actually, this is caused by desire, which was described to the root of the sin. It is why God should punish those two ignorant guys and kick them out. However, Desire is a talent of the human being. That is impossible to remove it from our soul, but we, especially men, should control it. People should be mature and men should be responsible. To protect them you should protect, and your family. Never bring a great deal of anxiety to the family because of your irresponsible behavior.

Also, fairness is another rule that a family should obey. “Everyone is equal” was written in the Declaration of the Independence. So everybody must obey it. The family members should respect each other, no levels and no prejudices. Someone may say that is unreal, impossible to avoid discrimination in families. But how do you think we explain family violence? Don’t say women were guilty since they were born, because everyone is guilty. The man and woman are equal in the family, and kids also. Democracy has to be in anywhere of the world.

Third, money is important. Maybe someone would say, “that is too mean”, but it is the only one thing that people who prepare to get married should think about. It relates to everyone’s happiness. Money is a very real thing; not like love or emotion, which you cannot touch and you cannot see, it is the reality. People need food and drink above everything. It is not you just say “I love you” and your lover will be full. It is not a joke. Recent young people do not consider this matter. They do not care about the future. They dream and dream every day. How many girls and boys have imagined some stories such as “Snow White” to happen onto themselves! A tale is just a tale. When you open your eyes, life still continues: The wife needs a new dress, babies need to drink milk and your belly is fighting for lunch. How terrible they are! Life is easy when eyes are closed, isn’t it?

“When people should have their own families” that is not a time problem. Actually people can get married whenever and wherever, only if the law allows. The key is how happy they are after the wedding. There is not a model of the harmonious family for reference. However, a prepared marriage is better than recklessness.

Thursday, July 05, 2007

Qin, Pu

Steven Spielberg, one of the most famous movie directors of the world, is my favorite person. I have seen a lot of his products, including Jaws, E.T., Indiana Jones and Titanic. The latest movie that I saw is “Munich”, which is talking around the terrorism of the 1980’s Munich Olympic Games. I think the movie that is produced by Steven Spielberg is always talking about the research of the soul and human being. I always get myself into his movie to imagine that I am a character in the story while watching. I admire his flair. He is a movie genius.
In modern history, I’m interested in World War II, the most important event in 1900s and the distress in mostly people’s memory. However, in that time, technology developed very quickly. The first computer was born at that time. Actually, it was produced for the military. Nobody thought that stupid box would change the world and human behavior later. But now everything can prove this point; computer is a fantastic invention!
“Be an honest guy!” My parents always say that to me. I know even though it is not special, it is the most genuine word, which I heard in my life.

Tuesday, February 27, 2007

I went to “Welcome to the Rock”, a website that introduced the island of Alcatraz, out in the middle of the San Francisco Bay. Alcatraz Island is one of the most famous and popular tourist destinations of the US. This is because the visitors to the island could not only travel around the remnants of the prison, but could also find out about the Indian occupation of 1969 - 1971, early military defenses (the first U.S. fort on the coast), and the West Coast's first (and oldest operating) lighthouse. But Alcatraz Island was well known for the federal prison from 1934-1963, which confined infamous prisoners such as Al Capone and Robert Stroud.

I knew this place since I watched a movie "The Rock", which was starred by Sean Connery and Nicolas Cage. I thought that is a good method to open up an old prison to the public. People can visit Alcatraz Island to learn about the life and culture of prison. That is a very useful place to educate youths about how terrible it is if you do some bad things. I am interested in Alcatraz Island so much that I hope I can visit San Francisco soon. I think that a trip to Alcatraz Island will be a very exciting experience.

Monday, February 19, 2007

I went to " FRIENDS OF THE JAMES FARM ". James was one of the most famous robbers in US history. He robbed the banks and killed people around the mid-US. However, people who lived in James' hometown loved him very much, so they throw the guys who killed James for the reward of the government to jail and changed them for murder. Nowadays, people restored the house where James was born to a museum for a memorial of him.

That is a very interesting and unbelievable story; a murderer or a bank robber becomes a hero in people's mind. That is too immoral to imagine James was a person who lived in civil war time. But people still love him now, and maybe forever.